Metaphysical guide of Tourmaline, Physical properties of Tourmaline

TOURMALINE, BLACK (SCHORL)

Tourmaline is a crystal silicate mineral compounded with elements such as aluminium, iron, magnesium, sodium, lithium, or potassium. Tourmaline is classified as a semi-precious stone and the gem comes in a wide variety of colors. The name comes from the Sinhalese word "Thuramali" or "Thoramalli", which applied to different gemstones found in Sri Lanka.
 
 
Physical guide of Tourmaline:
 
Stone Type/Family: A member of the Tourmaline family, Silicates class
Category: Silicate mineral group
Chemical formula: (Ca,K,Na,[])(Al,Fe,Li,Mg,Mn)3(Al,Cr, Fe,V)6
(BO3)3(Si,Al,B)6O18(OH,F)4
Color: Most commonly black, but can range from brown, violet, green, pink, or in a dual-colored pink and green.
Crystal habit: Parallel and elongated. Acicular prisms, sometimes radiating. Massive. Scattered grains (in granite).
Crystal system: Trigonal
Cleavage: Indistinct
Fracture: Uneven, small conchoidal, brittle
Mohs scale hardness: 7–7.5
Luster: Vitreous, sometimes resinous
Streak: White
Specific gravity: 3.06 (+.20 -.06)
Density: 2.82–3.32
Polish luster: Vitreous
Optical properties: Double refractive, uniaxial negative
Refractive: index nù=1.635–1.675, nå=1.610–1.650
Birefringence: -0.018 to -0.040; typically about .020 but in dark stones it may reach .040
Pleochroism: typically moderate to strong
Red Tourmaline: Definite; dark red,light red
Green Tourmaline: Strong; dark green, yellow-green
Brown Tourmaline: Definite; dark brown, light brown
Blue Tourmaline: Strong; dark blue, light blue
Dispersion: .017
Ultraviolet fluorescence: pink stones—inert to very weak red to violet in long and short wave
Absorption spectra: a strong narrow band at 498nm, and almost complete absorption of red down to 640nm in blue and green stones; red and pink stones show lines at 458 and 451nm as well as a broad band in the green spectrum
Location: Worldwide including Brazil, Germany, Madagascar, Namibia, Russia, UK, and the USA
Rarity: Common
Fun Fact: Other members of the Tourmaline Group include Elbaite, Uvite, Buergerite and Dravite.
 
 
Metaphysical guide of Tourmaline:
 
Protection, Grounding, Calming
Primary Chakra: All
Astrological sign(s): Capricorn
Vibration: Number 3 & 4
 
Black Tourmaline is a protective stone which repels and blocks negative energies and psychic attack. Black Tourmaline also aids in the removal of negative energies within a person or a space. Black Tourmaline will cleanse, purify, and transform dense energy into a lighter vibration.

A popular metaphysical stone, Black Tourmaline is also great for grounding. It balances, harmonizes, and protects all of the Chakras. Use Black Tourmaline to protect against electromagnetic "smog" (i.e. cell phones, computers, etc), radiation, noise sensitivity and other such disturbances. Black Tourmaline can be used as an aid to remove fear and boost self-confidence.

Black Tourmaline has a calming effect when needed, grounding flighty or scattered energies into the earth. Those who face challenges from negativity, frequent worrying, and/or OCD can work with Black Tourmaline to help heal these issues. Carry a piece of Black Tourmaline in your pocket to increase physical vitality throughout your day. Meditation with Black Tourmaline can enhance the integration of insights and visions into one's daily life.

Physically, Black Tourmaline helps to strengthen the immune system, balance the left and right hemispheres of the brain, and detoxify the body. Black Tourmaline is very helpful when dealing with illnesses of the lungs such as bronchitis, emphysema, pneumonia and Pleurisy. Black Tourmaline is a must for any medicine bag and is great for body layouts.
 
 
 
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Sources:

Healingcrystals.com - Wikipedia